Empirical Databases of School Shootings

                       Databases

Over the last 11 years, I have constructed an Excel spreadsheet with now over 100 columns that documents nearly 1,800 on-campus shootings (or at school-sponsored events) at American schools and colleges including 121 active shooter and mass school shootings (when using the definition of two or more injured and/or killed) with 20 shootings in the database being mass school shootings (four or more killed). When I learned that there wasn’t a comprehensive empirical database of school shootings when I was a junior in high school during coverage of the Columbine massacre, the stunning fact sparked my interest to construct the badly-needed database one day. Around 11 years after my junior year in high school, in August of 2009, is when I started my work. To facilitate verification of the information in the database a huge bibliography with an estimated 50,000 sources is also within the database which is by far the largest bibliography of any school shooting database project. The database below covers all classifications of shootings that have occurred on-campus (or at school-sponsored events) at America's schools (and school events) and includes all levels and types of education institutions. If it is a learning environment in America it is included. The database includes shootings at K-12 schools, colleges and universities, community colleges, specialty and vocational schools, military schools, bible and theological schools, preschools and even daycare centers (very few). There are 101 active shooter events (2 or more injured and/or killed) in the database. These are the shootings that grab the headlines and are what is considered and thought of when you hear "school shooting." The database includes fights (spontaneous and feuds) that resulted in a shooting, accidentalshootings, suicides, gang-related disputes, police shootings, shootings thathave nothing to do with the school other than the location, shootings arising from behavorial problems, drug-related diputes, terrorist acts, domestic disputes, stemming from rejection )or divorce), and many other types of shootings at America's schools. All the way to the right on the spreadsheet is a bibliography of an estimated 50,000 sources (links) which is, by far, the largest bibliography of any school shooting database project.. 

 

*School Shooting Epidemic Chart (1840-Present Day-Updated 6-1-2020)

Year Number of All Types of Shootings at U.S. Schools (includes the active shooter & mass killings) Number Killed

Number

Injured

Number of Mass School Shootings

(4 or more killed)

Number Killed Number Injured

Number of Active Shooter/Mass School Shootings

(2 or more injured and/or killed)

Number Killed Number Injured
1840-1944 (104 years) 146 132 144 1 5 1 4 6 22+
1945-1989 (45 years) 332 208 419 4 32 65 29 61 158

1990-Present Day

(29 years)

1, 316 569 1,135 15 153 137 89 234 357
Totals 1,794 909 1,725 20 190 203 117 299 534

*This chart is for the first 3 databases: Database of All Types of Shootings at America's Schools and Colleges, Mass School Shootings (4 or more killed) & Active Shooter & Mass School Shootings (2 or more injured and/or killed)

Database of All Types of Shootings at America's Schools and Colleges

Click Below to Access to View Comprehensive Database of All Types of American School Shootings (1840-present day) LAST UPDATED 6-1-2020
Excel spreadsheet with over 100 columns now (I have added over 20 columns recently) that documents nearly 1,800 on-campus shootings, (or at school-sponsored events, like the prom) including 3 bombings, at U.S. schools and colleges in American history dating back to 1840. Active shooter/mass shooting attacks are marked the color orange (2 or more injured and/or killed).There are 117 active shooter/mass shootings since 1891 which have killed 351 victims and injured more than 688. Twenty of the 117 are Mass School Shootings using the definition of 4 or more killed. Shootings that are marked with a darker green (Green, accent 1) are labeled Potential Active Shooter Events (PASE) represent shootings that had the potential to become active shooter/mass shooting but were stopped by intervention o
SSS-School Shooting Database (Update 7-3[...]
xlsb File [5.3 MB]

I would love to know your opinions about the database! Good or bad. Please feel free to contact me at ericlaurine5181@gmail.com

               Mass School Shootings (4 or more killed)

Mass School Shootings Updated 6-1-2020
Mass School Shootings
This dataset covers 20 mass school shootings using the definition or four or more killed.
SSS-School Shooting Database-Mass School[...]
xlsb File [3.4 MB]

Active Shooter & Mass School Shootings (2 or more injured and/or killed)

Active Shooter and Mass School Shootings (2 or more injured and/or killed). Last updated 6-1-2020
This dataset has 101 active shooter incidents (2-3 injured and/or killed) and 20 mass school shooting (4 or more killed). The 121 shootings in this dataset total 299 deaths and 534 injuries by gunfire. 190 of the 299 deaths (63.54%) and 192 of the 534 (35.95%) injuries occurred in the 20 mass school shootings. The remaining 109 deaths (36.45%) and 342 injuries (64.04%) happened in the 101 active shooter incidents (2-3 injured and/or killed)
SSS-School Shooting Database-Active Shoo[...]
xlsb File [3.7 MB]

                       Potential Active Shooter Events     

The spreadsheet below is shootings that I believe should be noted because there were warning signs and factors where the shooting could have became an active shooter event or mass shooting attack but did not occur because the shooter committed suicide before the attack was about to be carried out, students or others who knew about the potential shooting alerted school officials, or the shooter was talked out of doing it by teachers and/or school administrators, or police intenvention.

Potential Active Shooter Events (PASE)
This datasets covers what I term Potential Active Shooter Events because the potential and warning signs for an active shooter/mass attacks is there but the the attack did not occur because the shooter committed suicide before the attack was about to be carried out, students or others who knew about the potential shooting alerted school officials, the shooter was talked out of doing it by teachers and/or school administrators, or police intervention.
ASE- Potential Active Shooter Events 9-2[...]
xlsb File [142.8 KB]

   Database of Active Shooter and Mass School Shootings at K-12 Schools (1956-2019) Comparing the Effect of Gun-Free Zones Before and After the Gun-Free Schools Zones Act was Passed in 1990

73 Active Shooter Events at K-12 Schools from 1956-2019
This spreadsheet is of 73 active shooter and mass school shootings (9) at K-12 schools from 1956-2019. This database documents how active shooter events have nearly tripled and how student deaths have increased more than 9 times since gun-free zones legislation was passed in 1990.
SSS-School Shooting Database K-12 School[...]
xlsb File [431.4 KB]

Students' Deaths in Active Shooter Situations More than Nine Times as Likely Since Gun-Free Zones' Chart.

Victims Killed and Injured in Active Shooter Events at K-12 Schools Before and After Gun-Free Zones

Date Number of Shootings Students Killed Students Injured Educators Killed Educators Injured

Other School

Employees Killed

(includes SRO's)

OtherSchool

Employees Injured (includes SRO's)
 

Other Victims Killed Other Victims Injured

Before Gun-Free Zones

1956-1989

(33 years)

11 19 76 8 13 4 3 4 13

After Gun-Free Zones

1990-2019

(29 years)

54 102 216 27 20 3 1 1 4

Totals

1956-2019

73 113 292 35 33 7 4 5 17

Students' Deaths in Active Shooter Situations More than Nine Times as Likely Since Gun-Free Zones (published in the American Thinker)

After sending their child off to school the most important concern for parents is their child’s safe return home. Since the Gun-Free School Zones Act became law in 1990 parents of K-12 students have become more than 9 times as likely to suffer the heartbreaking reality that their children might not be coming home because they were killed in a school shooting. An examination of 73 active shooter events at K-12 schools (at least 2 or more killed and/or injured) from 1956-2019, documented at www.schoolshootingdatabase.com, has found that these tragedies have nearly tripled in number since the inception of gun-free zones.
     Yet, gun control groups like The Giffords Law Center, say, “gun-free zones have helped make K–12 schools even safer, significantly reducing gun violence in these places.”   The groups Everytown for Gun Safety and Moms Demand Action, who also wholeheartedly support gun-free zones, would falsely lead you to believe that “there is no evidence that shooters target these areas.”  But none of these anti-gun organizations offers solid and transparent empirical research to support their claims. Meanwhile, there is plenty of empirical data that proves how dangerous gun-free zones actually are. The Crime Prevention and Research Center also has examined mass shootings and found that “between 1950 and 2018, 97.8 percent of all mass public shooting occurred in gun-free zones.”
     The two time periods looked at were from before gun-free zone legislation was passed from 1956-1989 (nearly 33 years) and after the implementation of gun-free zones from November of 1990-2019 (roughly 29 years). The 73 shootings examined resulted in a total of 160 deaths and 346 injuries, with 113 of the deaths (71%) and 292 of the injuries (84%) being students. In the chart below, you will see that before gun-free zones were enacted, there were 19 active shooter incidents at K-12 schools, killing a total of 27 and injuring 105. Eleven (41%) of the 27 victims killed were students as were 76 (72%) of the injuries. The only mass school shooting (4 or more killed) committed in the Before Gun-Free Zones era was the 1989 Cleveland Elementary School shooting by Patrick Purdy, a mentally ill drifter with an extensive criminal history, which alone accounted for 5 of the 11 student deaths along with 30 of the students injured.
    After gun-free zones became law, the number of active shooter scenarios surged to 54 shootings, as did the body count with 133 victims killed and 241 injured. Student deaths also spiked to 102 (77%) victims and another 216 (90%) students received gunshot injuries after the so-called common-sense reform of gun-free zones legislation was passed. Mass school shootings (4 or more killed) at K-12 schools went from being virtually non-existent, with one attack before gun-free zones, to 9 mass school shootings after the gun reform bill was enacted, ending the lives of 91 people and injuring 80 more. Seventy-five of the 91 victims, (81.5%) who had their dreams cut short, were students, and another 73 (91%) students received injuries, with some of them facing life-long complications, like, lead poisoning from shotgun pellets, multiple surgeries and PTSD.

    With a plethora of empirical data from multiple sources, it’s hard for gun control proponents to deny that America’s schools have became more dangerous since the passage of gun-free zone legislation. They will have to lie to do so. There’s no empirical data showing how gun-free zones or any other gun control measure has been effective and reduced America’s gun violence epidemic. Yet, gun-grabbing advocates still shamelessly take aim, bombard and mislead the American public after every active shooter or mass attack with ever-increasing and louder calls for common-sense gun reform utilizing foolish and outlandish side-show attacks on law-abiding gun-owners and the NRA to distract from having to debate the actual facts of gun violence, which they know are not in their favor.

    Gun-free zones have not become the Utopian theoretical deterrent that was once hoped for, but instead they’ve become lethal advertisements that attract vengeful, active and mass shooters, who seek out unarmed and vulnerable soft targets that gun-free zones so easily provide, to exact their revenge. Although the law seemed to be a bulletproof idea when it was passed by a bi-partisan Congress after being introduced by Senator Joe Biden in October of 1990 and signed into law by President George Bush Senior, shortly thereafter, the consequence has been that America’s K-12 students face a darker reality and their schools have become much more dangerous.        

      With students having become 9 times more likely to be killed and almost 3 times more likely to be injured at school by gunfire in an active and mass shooter situation since the passage of the Gun-Free School Zones Act. Wouldn’t repealing the federal law be the best common-sense measure we could undertake? Repealing gun-free zones would be a simple, inexpensive process and its frankly inexcusable that there is such resistance to a truly common-sense and life-saving idea. Repealing gun-free zones legislation and not repeating the same lethal lessons of past school shootings should be paramount and that should be a common-sense path that we all should be able to agree on.

Shootings at Historically Black Colleges &   Universities (HBCU'S) 1918-Present Day

Shootings at Historically Black Colleges & Universities (1918-Present Day)
This spreadsheet documents 87 shootings at HBCU's. Shootings at HBCU's were rare and infrequent events until the 8 years of the Obama Administration where shootings increased dramatically. 56 of the 87 (64%) shootings in this spreadsheet occurred under the Obama Administration. The data here at www.schoolshootingdatabase.com, has uncovered that during the 8 years of the Obama Administration shootings at HBCU’s dramatically surged 430% (in roughly 28 less years) to 56 shootings, with gunfire killing 12 and injuring 66 more. Ten of the 12 victims (83%) killed during the Obama presidency were students, as were 39 (59%) of the injured. During President Obama’s 8-year reign as commander-in-chief, gun deaths at HBCU’s spiked 300% and gun injuries went up by 550% from the previous 36 years.
SSS-HBCU School Shooting Database 8-17-2[...]
xlsb File [167.6 KB]

Spreadsheets of Off campus (or near school) Shootings, No Shots Fired (NSF) Incidents Involving Guns at Schools, & BB Gun Shootings

 Note:  Too often in other research projects BB gun school shootings, incidents where no shots were fired but involve firearms at schools, & shootings that happen just off campus or down the street from the school are included as if they are actual shooting that occurred at a school. The spreadsheets below were constructed to address the misrepresentations and claims of them being misconstrued as actual shootings at schools. Considering these shooting incidents as on-campus shootings effects the honesty and integrity of any research project and causes confusion on a topic that is already extremely complex and difficult to understand. I agree that they should be researched and studied but it should be done separately to ensure the quality of the data. How are to reduce America's school shooting epidemic and help and protect American students by using flawed research methods and biased data? If a shooting is identified as not happening on a school campus, using a bb gun, or where no gun was fired in this research project (schoolshootingdatabase.com) it is looked into and researched further to confirm its validity. If a shooting in the master database above is identified and confirmed as a bb gun shooting, an incident that a firearm was NOT discharged (or only brandished), or occurred off campus it is first marked (see above) and then removed from the database after confirmation it is not a on-campus shooting or happened at a school-sponsored event, (or the firearm was a pellet gun) and then it is placed in the correct database.

BB gun School Shootings
BB GUN SCHOOL SHOOTINGS ONLY 3 BINARY.xl[...]
xlsb File [80.5 KB]
No Shots Fired Incidents Involving Firearms at America's schools
NO SHOTS FIRED INCIDENTS INVOLVING GUNS [...]
xlsb File [85.5 KB]
Off Campus (or near) Shootings by America's Schools
OFF CAMPUS SHOOTINGS by Schools BINARY.[...]
xlsb File [86.7 KB]

      Sandy Hook Never Forget artwork done by Mark Panzarino                                      

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